23 Aug, 2022


1.Grameen Udyami Project.
2.Forever Chemicals.
3.Face Recognition Technology.
4.Non Fungible Tokens.

1.Grameen Udyami Project.

Recently, National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in partnership with Seva Bharti and Yuva Vikas Society, launched the second phase of the Grameen Udyami Project.

What is GraminUdyami Project ?
Under the initiative, the endeavor is to multiskill India’s youth and impart functional skills to them for enabling livelihoods.It is a unique multi-skilling project, funded by NSDC that aims to train 450 tribal students in Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. The project is being implemented in six states— Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Gujarat

Increase in Rural/Local Economy.
Enhance employment opportunities.
Reduce forced migration due to lack of local opportunities.
Conservation of natural resources.

What is National Skill Developemnt Corporation ?
The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) is a non-profit public limited company established on July 31, 2008, under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956.

  • The Ministry of Finance established NSDC as a Public Private Partnership (PPP) model.
  • The Government of India, through the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE), owns 49% of NSDC, while the private sector owns the remaining 51%.
  • The organization provides funding to develop scalable and successful initiatives for vocational training.

2. Forever Chemicals

According to a recent study, scientists have found that rainwater from many places across the globe is contaminated with Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAs). Further, they are called Forever chemicals because of their tendency to stick around in the atmosphere,rainwater, and soil for long periods of time. PFAs are also listed in the Stockholm Convention.

What are PFAs ?

According to the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), PFAs are man-made chemicals used to make nonstick cookware, water-repellent clothing, stain-resistant fabrics, cosmetics, firefighting forms and many other products that resist grease, water and oil. PFAs can migrate to the soil, water and air during their production and use. Since most PFAs do not break down, they remain in the environment for long periods of time. Some of these PFAs can build up in people and animals if they are repeatedly exposed to the chemicals.

Harmful Effects

  • They cause a variety of health risks that are attributed to PFA exposure, including decreased fertility, developmental effects in children, interference with body hormones, increased cholesterol levels, and increased risk of some cancers.
  • Recent research has also revealed that long-term low-level exposure to certain PFAs can make it difficult for humans to build antibodies after being vaccinated against various diseases.

What can be done to remove these chemicas ?

  • Incineration
  • Supercritical Water Oxidation
  • Filtration Systems
  • Plasma Reactors

3. Face Recognition Technology

Right to Information (RTI) responses received by the Internet Freedom Foundation, a New-Delhi based digital rights organization, reveal that the Delhi Police treats matches of above 80% similarity generated by its facial recognition technology (FRT) system as positive results.

What is Facial Recognition Technology?
Facial recognition is an algorithm-based technology which creates a digital map of the face by identifying and mapping an individual’s facial features, which it then matches against the database to which it has access.

Significance of Facial Recognition Technology
 1:1 verification of identity wherein the facial map is obtained for the purpose of matching it against the person’s photograph on a database to authenticate their identity. For example, 1:1 verification is used to unlock phones. However, increasingly it is being used to provide access to any benefits or government schemes.
1:n verification of identity wherein the facial map is obtained from a photograph or video and then matched against the entire database to identify the person in the photograph or video. Law enforcement agencies such as the Delhi Police usually procure FRT for 1:n identification.

Concerns over FRT 
No law in place: At present, India does not have a data protection law or a FRT specific regulation to protect against misuse.
Issues related to misidentification due to inaccuracy of the technology: This can result in a false positive, where a person is misidentified as someone else, or a false negative where a person is not verified as themselves. E.g. Failure of the biometric based authentication under Aadhaar led to many people being excluded from receiving essential government services which in turn has led to starvation deaths.
Issues related to mass surveillance due to misuse of the technology:Even if accurate, this technology can result in irreversible harm as it can be used as a tool to facilitate state sponsored mass surveillance.
Violation of Fundamental Rights: FRT can enable the constant surveillance of an individual resulting in the violation of their fundamental right to privacy.
Function creep: Using information for a purpose that is not the original specified purpose (Police got permission to use the FRT by an order of the Delhi High Court for tracking  missing children. Now they are using it for wider security and surveillance and investigation purposes, which is a function creep).

4. Non Fungible Tokens

Non-fungible tokens, or NFTs took a hit as a result of the crypto fallout.


  • Anything that can be converted into a digital form can be an NFT.
  • Example: Photos, videos, GIF, music, in-game items, selfies, and even a tweet can be turned into an NFT, which can then be traded online using cryptocurrency.
  • NFTs are digital assets whose ownership is verified through transaction records stored on blockchains???


  • NFTs can have only one owner at a time.
  • It is backed by Blockchain technology, which helps to prove ownership.
  • NFT transactions are recorded on blockchains, which is a digital public ledger, with most NFTs being a part of the Ethereum blockchain.
  • NFTs can have only one owner at a time.
  • It is backed by Blockchain technology, which helps to prove ownership.
  • NFT transactions are recorded on blockchains, which is a digital public ledger, with most NFTs being a part of the Ethereum blockchain.


Emergence of fake marketplaces
Unverified sellers often impersonate real artists and sell copies of their artworks for half prices.
Negative impact on the environment as in order to validate transactions, crypto mining is done, which requires high powered computers that run at a very high capacity, affecting the environment ultimately.