News Analysis 22 Sept, 2022

22 Sep, 2022


1. Science & Technology Driven Diplomacy : Effective “Techplomacy” Strategy
2. The ambit of fraternity and the wages of oblivion
3. India’s Population Paradox: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

1. Science & Technology Driven Diplomacy : Effective “Techplomacy” Strategy

Theme :  Government Policies & Interventions ;E-Governance ;IT and Cyber Security

Related Paper : GS-2, GS-3

                                       TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Context
  2. Techplomacy
  3. Fourth Industrial Revolution
  4. How can it shape Global Geopolitics?
  5. Current Status of Science & Technology Driven Diplomacy in India
  6. Major Challenges before Science & Technology Driven Diplomacy in India

Context :
Along with a multi-aligned stand on global geopolitics, the time is ripe for India to extend its science and tech ties in global geoeconomics in a more comprehensive and well-rounded manner.

Techplomacy :

“Techplomacy”—a “portmanteau” word—refers to the combination of technology and diplomacy, as foreign and security policies embraced the digital age. This concept acknowledges the key role that data-driven innovation and giant tech companies play in today’s society, reshaping the way we think about diplomacy in the 21st century.

Fourth Industrial Revolution :

Some of the most widespread societal changes are steered by global tech trends that slowly but surely transform the way we live. They are often collectively named the "Fourth Industrial Revolution":

  • The influence that artificial intelligence and automation have on the future of jobs.
  • Big data's impact on the protection of personal information.
  • Social media's impact on democratic dialogue (and elections).
  • The undeniable effect that the Internet of Things has on cybersecurity.
  • Digital business models and taxation systems.
  • The impact that cryptocurrency has on the global financial architecture.

How can it shape Global Geopolitics?

  • Science in Diplomacy: It means the scientific inputs going into diplomacy and foreign policy making.

    • Global challenges such as weapons of mass destruction, climate change, cyber security, human health, energy and environment, outer space etc., all require scientific inputs in order to understand and deal with them.

      • These challenges are trans-border and require application of science and technology in order to resolve them in addition to normal diplomatic efforts.Example: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  • Science for Diplomacy: It offers alternative channels of engagement among countries that may have political differences, thus playing an important role by influencing the dynamics of power-balance between sovereign nations.

    • Scientific values of rationality, transparency and universality are the same the world over. S&T cooperation therefore provides a non-ideological environment for the participation and free exchange of ideas.

  • Diplomacy for Science: It means making use of diplomacy to gain benefits in science and technology – bilaterally as well as multilaterally.

    • It seeks to acquire science and technology knowledge to strengthen national economy and capacity and to participate more effectively in international discussions where science and technology are involved.

Current Status of Science & Technology Driven Diplomacy in India :

  • The Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) 2013 was one of the instances that an intersection of technology and diplomacy found a mention in an official government document.

    • The document states that the “policy framework will enable strategic partnerships and alliances with other nations through both bilateral and multilateral cooperation in science, technology and innovation.

    • Science diplomacy, technology synergy and technology acquisition models will be judiciously deployed based on strategic relationships.

  • Draft Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, 2020 discusses the role of Science & Technology in re-organising India’s foreign policy priorities and shaping the global technology ecosystem.

  • In 2020, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) created technically specialized divisions, such as the cyber diplomacy division, e-governance and information technology division, and the new emerging and strategic technologies division.

  • International Solar Alliance (ISA) 2015 was launched by India and France to boost solar energy in developing countries.

    • It is an association of 121 signatory countries which majorly are sunshine countries (countries lying between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn), and is an excellent example of modern-day science diplomacy.

Major Challenges before Science & Technology Driven Diplomacy in India :

  • Growing Risk of Weaponization of Outer Space: Given the advances in space technology, many areas of peaceful use of space are increasingly becoming double-edged and there is a growing risk of militarisation and weaponization of outer space.

    • Satellites that can be used for both civil and military purposes have led to the development of anti-satellite weapons technology.

      • Several countries, including the United States, Russia, China, and India, have already tested this.

  • Rise of Cyber-Warfare and Cyber-Armies: Technology has changed the nature of warfare from visible large-scale military action and violence to subtle, invisible yet decisive cyberwarfare for crippling the enemy’s information environment in a war-like situation.

    • Many countries around the world are maintaining military units that are specifically trained to operate in a cyberwarfare environment called cyber-armies.

  • Threat of Bioweapons: With advances in biotechnology, microbiological agents (such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi) can be used as biological weapons to intentionally cause harm to humans, animals, or plants in case of conflict and war.

  • Data Privacy Concern: Big data is often perceived as the black gold of the 21st century.

    • As the Internet allows for the aggregation and globalization of markets and consumers, cross-border data flow is becoming a contested issue of data privacy and global governance.

  • Growing China’s Influence: The last two decades have seen the Chinese leapfrog in critical technology domains such as quantum information and the electric vehicles ecosystem.

    • Also, the Chinese state has been actively promoting and exporting its technology infrastructure beyond its borders, thereby increasing its sphere of influence.

2. The ambit of fraternity and the wages of oblivion

Theme : Indian Constitution

Related Paper : GS - 2


  1. Context
  2. What is Preamble
  3. What is Fraternity?
  4. Responsibilities of Citizens
  5. Existent Inequality
  6. Conclusion

Context :
Preamble contains ideals that the Constitution seeks to achieve. It gives direction and purpose to the Constitution.It also enshrines the grand objectives and socio-economic goals which are to be achieved through constitutional processes.

What is Preamble :

The ‘Preamble’ of the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document, and it indicates the source from which the document derives its authority, meaning, the people. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India and came into effect on 26th January 1950.



What is Fraternity?

  • The term 'fraternity' refers to a sense of brotherhood as well as an emotional bond with the country and its people. It refers to a sensation that leads one to imagine that everyone is descended from the same soil and is linked to one another.
  • “These principles of liberty, equality and fraternity are not to be treated as separate items in a trinity. They form a union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat the very purpose of democracy,’’said B.R. Ambedkar in the Constituent Assembly, in 1949.

Responsibilities of Citizens :

  • Practical adherence to the commitment was given shape only by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976) in Article 51A (e) on Fundamental Duties. It makes it the duty of every citizen of India ‘to promote harmony and the spirit of common among all the people of India, transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.’
  • Significantly, the responsibility for bringing this about does not rest with the state but seems to be the responsibility of the individual citizen. We, therefore, need to comprehend the meaning and relevance of this pious wish.

Existent Inequality :

  • An Important factor, often overlooked, is the shape that inequality takes in different segments of our society. It is economic on one plane; on others it is regional, caste and religious.
  • Sociologists have identified nine categories of people who are determined to be socially and/or politically and/or economically excluded. These particularly include Dalits, Adivasis, women and religious minorities.
  • Recent studies on religious minorities who constitute around 20% of India’s population have traced discrimination relating to them to perceptions that relate to the very origins of thinking that brought about the partition of August 1947. They argue that violence was not merely accidental but integral to the foundation of the nation and that the need for fraternity coexisted with the imperative need for restoring social cohesion in segments of society.

Conclusion :

  • Fraternity – Bandhuta – is the most radical and important idea of our times, the necessary foundation to fight all the world’s injustices, hate and inequalities. 
  • A fine example of what Bandhuta can accomplish in times of hate was offered in the last months of Mahatma Gandhi’s life, which were surely his finest hour. In these months, he cemented powerfully the foundations of India as a humane, inclusive, secular country. 
  • He showed us the possibilities of fraternity to imagine - and live – a different India.We must cultivate the sense of this brotherhood in order to truly realize “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’.

3. India’s Population Paradox: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

Theme : Society ; Population and Its Associated Issues

Related Paper : GS - 1


  1. Context
  2. UN World Population Prospect Report
  3. Important Points
  4. Reasons of Growth in Population
  5. Negative Implications of Population Growth
  6. Steps taken by the Government

Context : 
The United Nations World Population Prospects (WPP) Report 2022 was released which predicted that India is projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country in 2023, much earlier than previously thought.

UN World Population Prospect Report :

  • World Population Prospects 2022 is the official estimate and projections of the global population that have been published by the United Nations since 1951.
  • They form a comprehensive set of demographic data to assess population trends at the global, regional and national levels.
  • This report provides an overview of global population trends focusing on the period from 1950 to 2050 and presents a summary of key demographic prospects during the second half of the present century.

Important Points :

  • The world’s population is projected to reach 8 billion on 15 November 2022.
  • The global population is still growing, albeit at a reduced rate. Some countries and regions continue to experience further population growth, while others have witnessed a stabilization or begun to decrease in population size.
  • In 2021, the average fertility of the world’s population stood at 2.3 births per woman over a lifetime, having fallen from about 5 births per woman in 1950.
  • The world population might peak at around 10.4 billion in 2086.


Reasons of Growth in Population :

  • Higher birth rate: We have been successful in declining the death rates but the same cannot be said for birth rates.
  • Fertility rate: is much higher compared to other countries.
  • Early Marriage and Universal Marriage System: Getting married at a young age prolongs the childbearing age. Also, in India, marriage is a sacred obligation and a universal practice, where almost every woman is married at reproductive age.
  • Poverty and Illiteracy: Another factor for the rapid growth of the population is poverty. Impoverished families have this notion that more the members in the family, the more will be the numbers to earn income. Some feel that more children are needed to look after them in their old age. Also, hunger can be the cause of death of their children and hence the need for more children. Indians still lag behind the use of contraceptives and birth control methods. Many of them are not willing to discuss or are totally unaware of them. Illiteracy is thus another cause of overpopulation.
  • Age old cultural norm: Sons are the bread earners of families in India. This age-old thought puts considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child or the required number of male children are born (This is called Son Meta preference).
  • Illegal migration: Last but not the least, we cannot ignore the fact that illegal migration is continuously taking place from Bangladesh and Nepal leading to increased population density.
  • Lack of awareness: about family planning and its benefits, government schemes related to family welfare like free birth control measures leading to unwanted pregnancies and ultimately population growth.

Negative Implications of Population Growth :

  • Poor achievement of SDGs: Sustained high fertility and rapid population growth present challenges to the achievement of sustainable development. The necessity of educating growing numbers of children and young people, for example, draws resources away from efforts to improve the quality of education.
  • Unemployment: Generating employment for a huge population in a country like India is very difficult. The number of illiterate persons increases every year. The unemployment rate is thus showing an increasing trend.
  • Pressure on infrastructure: The development of infrastructural facilities is unfortunately not keeping pace with the growth of the population. The result is a lack of transportation, communication, housing, education, healthcare etc. There has been an increase in the number of slums, overcrowded houses, traffic congestion etc.
  • Manpower utilization: The number of jobless people is on the rise in India due to economic depression and slow business development and expansion activities. It has also caused India to be the home of the largest force of Gig Workers in the world and large informal economy. This ultimately leads to poor or stagnant living standards, slow progress in Human Capital Development and Social Mobility for a large section of society.
  • Faster and inefficient resource utilization: Land areas, water resources, forests are over exploited. There is also scarcity of resources.
  • Decreased production and increased costs: Food production and distribution have not been able to catch up with the increasing population and hence the costs of production have increased. Inflation is the major consequence of overpopulation.
  • Inequitable income distribution: In the face of an increasing population, unequal distribution of income and inequalities within the country widen.
  • Increasing divergence in the representation of different states in Parliament of India: higher population growth in north Indian states as compared to southern states has led to the freezing of the number of seats in parliament till 2026. This has caused a political tussle between less developed northern and largely developed southern Indian states.

Steps taken by the Government :

  • After independence, a Population Policy Committee was created in 1952 which suggested the appointment of a Family Planning Research and Programmes Committee in 1953.
  • The Central Family Planning Board was created in 1956 which emphasized sterilization. Up till the 1960s a rigid policy was not adopted to arrest the fast growth of the population. The policy framed in 1951-52 was ad hoc in nature, flexible, and based on a trial and error approach.
  • The New Population Policy, 1977: The Government of India introduced first National Population Policy in 1976, which focussed on reducing birth rate, lowering infant mortality rate and improving the standard of life.
  • The National Population Policy 2000: provided a comprehensive framework to provide the reproductive and health needs of the people of India for the next ten years.
  • Mission Parivar Vikas (MPV), 2016: Under the scheme, innovative strategies like the distribution of Nayi Pehel kits, Saas Bahu Sammelan, and Saarthi vans are helping in reaching out to the community and initiating dialogues on family planning and healthy birth spacing, and the importance of small families.
  • Raising the marriage age for girls: Recently, the Government proposed the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which seeks to raise the age of legal marriage for women from 18 to 21, which would further help in reducing fertility rates.