News Analysis 13 Aug, 2022

13 Aug, 2022


1. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban (PMAY-U)
2. Anti Corruption Bureau
3. Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022

1. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban (PMAY-U)

Cabinet approves continuation of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U) – “Housing for All” Mission up to 31st December 2024.

About PMAY-U:

  1. Launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA)
  2. Falls under the Government’s mission - Housing for All by 2022 for urban housing
  3. Implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs(MoHUA).(Note: The government, in 2017, merged the urban development and housing and urban poverty alleviation ministries as the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs) (MoHUA)

Four Verticals of PMAY-U:

  1. Slum rehabilitation of Slum Dwellers with participation of private developers using land as a resource.
  2. Promotion of Affordable Housing for weaker sections through credit linked subsidy.
  3. Affordable Housing in Partnership with Public & Private sectors.
  4. Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction / enhancement.

Credit linked subsidy component will be implemented as a CentralSector Scheme while other three components will be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).


i. Economically Weaker Section (EWS) - with a maximum annual family income of Rs. 3,00,00.
ii. Low Income Group (LIG) - with maximum annual family income of Rs.6,00,000) and
iii. Middle Income Groups (MIG I & II) - with a maximum annual family income of Rs. 18,00,000)

  • EWS category of beneficiaries is eligible for assistance in all four verticals of the Missions whereas LIG and MIG categories are eligible under only Credit linked subsidy scheme (CLSS) component of the Mission.
  • Geo-tagging: Under the PMAY-U guidelines, it is mandatory for the state government to ensure that all houses built under the scheme are geotagged to the Bhuvan HFA (housing for all) application. Bhuvan is an Indian Geo Platform developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • Ownership: Promotes Women Empowerment by providing the ownership of houses in the name of a female member or in joint names.

Initiatives under PMAY-U:

Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs):
   a) It is a sub-scheme under PMAY-U.
   b) This will provide ease of living to urban migrants/ poor in the Industrial Sector as well as in non-formal urban economies to get access to dignified affordable rental housing close to their workplace.

Global Housing Technology Challenge:
a)It aims to identify and mainstream a basket of innovative construction technologies from across the globe for the housing construction sector that are sustainable, eco-friendly and disaster-resilient.

CLSS Awas Portal (CLAP):
a)It is a common platform where all stakeholders e.g., MoHUA, Central Nodal Agencies, Primary Lending Institutions, Beneficiaries and Citizens are integrated in a real-time environment.
b)The portal facilitates processing of applications along with tracking of subsidy status by beneficiaries.

Way Ahead 

  1. New construction technologies, which are adaptable, sustainable and low cost, can be used for creating large-scale affordable housing at a rapid pace and reach out to a larger audience.
  2. For maintaining an adequate supply of land, it is imperative that necessary changes in land-use change policies are introduced at the state level.
  3. Given the overall financial implications for India, measures are certainly needed to ensure prudence and seek permanent solutions.
  4. PMAY must be made accessible to more people and there should be increased awareness.


2.  Anti Corruption Bureau

HC abolishes Karnataka ACB under state govt, shifts cases to Lokayukta.


  1. The Karnataka government set up an Anti-Corruption Bureau to provide a transparent and efficient administration.
  2. ACB is a statutory authority placed under the direct supervision of the Department of Personnel and Administrative Reforms(DPAR)
  3. However, A division bench of Karnataka High Court abolished ACB with immediate effect.
  4. The court restored the power to investigate the corruption cases in Karnataka to the Lokayukta police wing as it existed prior to the creation of the ACB.

Criticism of ACB:

  1. The power of the ACB to probe corruption cases against public servants, will eventually depend on the whims and fancies of the State government.
  2. Can also be selectively used to target or safeguard those accused of corruption.
  3. Just a transfer of power as all the cases registered by the Lokayukta police under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 were shifted to ACB.


  1. The term Lokpal and Lokayukta were coined by Dr L. M. Singhvi.
  2. Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 seeks to provide for the establishment of Lokayukta for States to inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for related matters.

Lokpal :
    a) Lokpal is a multi-member body that consists of one chairperson and a maximum of 8 members.
    b) Out of the maximum eight members, half to be judicial members and minimum 50% of the Members will be from SC/ ST/ OBC/ Minorities and women.
    c) The Chairperson of the Lokpal should be either the former Chief Justice of India or the former Judge of the Supreme Court or an eminent person with impeccable integrity          and outstanding ability.
    d) The term of office for Lokpal Chairman and Members is 5 years or till the age of 70 years.

Functions of Lokayukta:

  1. Investigate any action taken by the public servant if referred by the state government.
  2. Speedy redressal of public grievances.
  3. Complaints will not be taken up if alternate remedy available.
  4. Procedure of investigation is the same as that of the Lokpal.
  5. The Lokayukta and Uplokayukta will present a consolidated report of their functions to the Governor.

Recommendations of 2nd ARC

2nd ARC has made the following recommendations to reduce corruption :

  1. Collusive corruption should be made a special offense.
  2. Prior consent should not be necessary for prosecuting a public servant who has been caught red handed.
  3. NGO which receives substantial funding should be covered under PCA.
  4. Steps should be taken to implement the Benami Transactions Act.
  5. Legislation should be proposed to protect whistle-blowers according to the Law Commission.
  6. Article 105(2) should be amended to provide that the immunity enjoyed by MP does not cover corrupt Acts.
  7. Article 311 should be repealed.
  8. CVC should work under the guidance of lokpal.
  9. Lokpal should be a three-member body.
  10. Citizen charter should be made effective by providing remedies if the services are not met.


3. Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022

India experienced severe working-hour and employment losses in 2020 and 2021, and Indian youth employment deteriorated in 2021 compared with the 2020 situation, according to the Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022 report released by the International Labor Organization.

About Global Employment Trends for Youth Report :

Provides an update on key youth labor market indicators and trends:

  1. Pandemic has worsened the numerous labor market challenges facing those aged between 15 and 24.
  2. The total global number of unemployed youth is estimated to reach 73 million in 2022, a slight improvement from 2021 (75 million), but still six million above the pre-pandemic level of 2019.
  3. Youth employment participation rate declined by 0.9 percentage points over the first nine months of 2021 relative to 2020, while it increased by 2 percentage points for adults over the same time period.
  4. The unemployment rate of young people in the Asia and Pacific region is projected to reach 14.9% in 2022
  5. Only 8% of children in rural areas and 23% in urban areas had adequate access to online education.
  6. In India, 92% of children on average lost at least one foundational ability in language and 82% lost at least one foundational ability in mathematics.

7.Impact on Women and Young Population:

      a)Women have been worse hit by the labor market crisis than men and this is likely to continue.
      b)The closing of education and training institutions will have long-term implications for young people, particularly those without internet access.

8.Expected Recovery:
      a)There can be no real recovery from this pandemic without a broad-based labor market recovery.
      b)Sustainable recovery is possible, but it must be based on the principles of decent work, including health and safety, equity, social protection, and social dialogue.

The new labor market forecast can be vital for policy planning for a country like India, where most of the work is informal, to prevent further employment losses and reductions in working hours.

Impact Of Low Access To Vaccines

  1. Many low and middle-income countries have low access to vaccines and limited scope to expand government budgets to address the crisis.
  2. Thus, these countries are struggling more than high-income ones to get back to pre-pandemic levels of employment and job quality.
  3. Key labor market indicators in all regions — Africa, the Americas, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, and Europe and Central Asia — have yet to return to pre-pandemic levels.
  4. All regions face severe downside risks to their labor market recovery that stem from the ongoing impact of the pandemic. The outlook is the most negative for Latin America and the Caribbean and for southeast Asia.

About ILO:

  1. Created in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it’s based on social justice.
  2. ILO became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946.
  3. Aim: To promote social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights.
  4. Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Other Reports by ILO:

  • Social Dialogue Report
  • World Social Protection Report
  • World Employment and Social Outlook
  • Global Wage Report