News Analysis 06 Sept, 2022

06 Sep, 2022


1.  Indigenization and INS Vikrant : A Welcome Move
2. Life Skills : Can they be a Missing Link between Education and Employment?

1. Indigenization and INS Vikrant : A Welcome Move


Theme: Indigenization of Technology, Security Challenges




                            TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Context

  2. Indigenization of Defense.

  3. Importance of INS Vikrant in India’s Maritime Security

  4. Challenges of Indigenization for Navy

  5. Defense Acquisition Council

  6. Need of Indigenization.

  7. Way Ahead

Context :
While the absorption of indigenisation has matured, a large gap still exists in the development of critical technologies, Hi-Tech components, weapons and advanced manufacturing processes.


Indigenization of Defense.

  • Indigenisation is the capability of developing and producing any defense equipment within the country for the dual purpose of achieving self-reliance and reducing the burden of imports.

  • Self-reliance in defense manufacturing is one of the key objectives of Department of Defense Production.Defense Research Development Organization (DRDO), Defense Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) and private organizations are playing a critical role in indigenisation of defense industries.

  • India is among the world’s largest arms importers, and the armed forces are expected to spend about USD 130 billion on defense purchases over the next five years.



Importance of INS Vikrant in India’s Maritime Security :

  • Vikrant (which means courageous) is named after India's first aircraft carrier, bought from the UK and commissioned in 1961.

  • The first INS Vikrant was a major symbol of national pride and played an important role in several military operations including the 1971 Indo-Pak War before being decommissioned in 1997. Now India’s first homemade aircraft carrier will carry the name of her illustrious predecessor.

  • After its induction, the warship will be a key component of the Indian Navy’s push to establish itself as a blue water force, one with the ability to project its power on distant seas.

  • It is especially important amid India’s bid to be a net security provider in the Indian Ocean region where it faces China, whose navy is focused on aircraft carriers and has already inducted two vessels.

  • With the commissioning of INS Vikrant, India will have two operational aircraft carriers (the other one is INS Vikramaditya) , which will bolster the maritime security of the nation.


Challenges of Indigenization for Navy :

  • Dependence on Import For Subsystems and Components: Any warship has three components, from design to final operational induction ( FLOAT, MOVE, FIGHT).

  • Indian Navy has been able to achieve about 90% indigenisation in the ‘FLOAT’ category, followed by about 60% in ‘MOVE' category depending upon the type of propulsion.

  • However, in the ‘FIGHT’ category we have achieved only about 30% indigenisation. Imports make up the remainder.

  • Growing Chinese Influence in the Indian Ocean

  • Cost and Time Overruns: The Navy suffers from cost and time overruns throughout most production projects, for example, INS Vikramaditya was inducted into service more than 10 years after it was purchased.

  • Outdated Submarines: A submarine fleet is considered indispensable to support the Navy's aircraft carriers, among other duties.


Defense Acquisition Council:

  • The Defense Acquisition Council is the highest decision-making body in the Defense Ministry for deciding on new policies and capital acquisitions for the three services (Army, Navy and Air Force) and the Indian Coast Guard.

  • The Minister of Defense is the Chairman of the Council.

  • It was formed, after the Group of Ministers recommendations on 'Reforming the National Security System', in 2001, post Kargil War (1999).


Need of Indigenization :

  • Reducing Fiscal Deficit:

    • India is the second largest arms importer in the world 

    • Higher import dependency leads to an increase in the fiscal deficit.

  • Security perspective:

    • Indigenisation in defense is critical to national security also. It keeps intact the technological expertise and encourages spin-off technologies and innovation that often stem from it.

    • Indigenisation is needed in order to avert the threats associated with the frequent ceasefire violations like that of the Uri, Pathankot and Pulwama attacks..

  • Employment Generation:

    • It will lead to the generation of satellite industries that in turn will pave the way for generation of employment opportunities.

    • As per government estimates, a reduction in 20-25% in defense related imports could directly create an additional 100,000 to 120,000 highly skilled jobs in India.

  • Strategic Capability:

    • A self sufficient and self reliant defense industry will place India among the top global powers.



  • The recent corporatization of the Indian Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) is an example of fine-tuning the defense production industry to make them more capable and competitive.

  • There needs a permanent arbitration cell to deal with disputes and objections which may otherwise hold up the process for a long time.

  • Ensure a level playing field for the private sector along with DRDO, DPSU, and OFB.

  • Aim to increase the export capability to attract funding of the indigenisation.


2. Life Skills : Can they be a Missing Link between Education and Employment?


Theme : Human Resource, Government Policies,Skill Development,Growth & Development.





                           TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Context

  2. What are Life Skills

  3. Relevance of Life Skills in Indian Context

  4. National Education Policy and Life Skills

  5. UNICEF on Life Skills

  6. Required Skills at School,Life and Work


Context :
The problem with India is not only unemployment, but also unemployability. There are 650 million Indians under the age of 25, the largest youth population in the world, which presents a unique situation.Hence, Life Skills could Bridge the gap.


What are Life Skills :

  • Life skills are a set of abilities, attitudes and socio-emotional competencies that enable individuals to learn, make informed decisions and exercise rights to lead a healthy and productive life and subsequently become agents of change.

  • Life skills promote mental well-being and competence in young people as they face the realities of life.

  • These skills support the development of foundational skills such as literacy, numeracy, digital skills and can also be utilized in several areas, such as gender equality in education, environmental education, peace education or education for development, livelihood and income generation, and for positive health promotion among others.

  • Life skills empower young people to take positive action to participate in their communities, engage in continuous learning, protect themselves and promote health and positive social relationships.



Relevance of Life Skills in Indian Context :

  • Adapting to the Situation:Time management  and self-awareness, interpersonal relationship skills give the ability to adapt to situations.

  • Critical thinking skills allow students to comprehend and address situations based on the available information and facts.

  • Creative Thinking Skills:Having the ability to think creatively allows us to reconsider things from a fresh perspective and from new angles.It’s an innovative thought process which results in surprising deductions and new ways of doing things.

  • Fragile Knowledge Society:In India, children and adolescents have low levels of understanding and conceptual clarity around learning, analytical skills and knowledge of human rights, including gender equality.

  • Depleting Human Capital:A fragile knowledge society has ramifications on the ability of its members in understanding and applying learning to gain opportunities and build a productive society.

  • Inequity:Post-independence, patterns of inequality and exclusion continue to exist in India, largely due to deep rooted social (e.g. caste, tribal, minorities and gender) and class structures that perpetuate and limit opportunities for people, systematically blocking them from availing of the rights, opportunities and resources that are usually available to all members of society.


National Education Policy and Life Skills:

  • The policy recommended incorporating life skills as part of the curriculum, taking into account the view that education must go beyond academic outcomes to focus on the holistic development of our future generations.

  • The NEP has recognized the importance of life skills in the lives of human beings, and it has given more attention to developing life skills in the educational process.

  • NEP has identified the social and gender gap in the education system. NEP has stated that there is a clear gap in the representation of the various social groups in the education system. It has highlighted the need to reduce it with all kinds of interventions.


UNICEF on Life Skills :

UNICEF is an advocate for life skills education (LSE), and has been a source of support for life skills education programmes in many countries.


Required Skills at School, Life and Work :

  1. Foundational skills: Foundational skills, namely literacy and numeracy, are essential for further learning, productive employment and civic engagement.

  2. Digital skills: Digital literacy enables children and young people to use and understand technology, search for and manage information, create and share content, collaborate, communicate, build knowledge, and solve problems safely, critically and ethically.

  3. Transferable skills: Also called “life skills,” “twenty-first-century skills,” “soft skills,” or “socio-emotional skills,” these allow young people to become agile learners and global citizens equipped to navigate personal, social, academic and economic challenges. Transferable skills also help young people affected by crises cope with trauma and build resilience. They include problem-solving, negotiation, managing emotions, empathy and communication.

  4. Job-specific skills: Also known as “technical" and "vocational" skills, these are associated with occupations and support the transition of older adolescents into the workforce.