Theme : India & Its Neighborhood
Paper : GS - 2
Recently China placed a “hold” on two joint India-US proposals, to designate Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) top leaders including Talha Saeed, son of Hafiz Saeed and Shahid Mehmood, deputy chief of an LeT front at the United Nations Security Council’s (UNSC) 1267 list of terrorists affiliated to Al Qaeda and ISIS.
TABLE OF CONTENT
- United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
- Resolutions of UNSC
- UNSC Resolution 1267 Sanctions Committee
- China holding the listings
- Road Ahead for India
Context : Recently China placed a “hold” on two joint India-US proposals, to designate Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) top leaders including Talha Saeed, son of Hafiz Saeed and Shahid Mehmood, deputy chief of an LeT front at the United Nations Security Council’s (UNSC) 1267 list of terrorists affiliated to Al Qaeda and ISIS.
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) :
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN).
Mandates of UNSC:
Ensuring international peace and security
authorizing peacekeeping operations and military action
recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly
approving any changes to the UN Charter
authorizing enacting international sanctions
The UNSC is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions on member states. It was founded in 1945 and is headquartered at NewYork.
Resolutions of UNSC :
- A resolution adopted by all the members of the Security Council (UNSC) are formal expressions of the opinion or will of United Nations organs. They are legally binding.
- The UN Charter specifies (in Article 27) that a draft resolution on non-procedural matters is adopted if nine or more of the fifteen Council members vote for the resolution, and if it is not vetoed by any of the five permanent members.
- Draft resolutions on “procedural matters” can be adopted on the basis of an affirmative vote by any nine Council members.
- If the council cannot reach consensus or a passing vote on a resolution, they may choose to produce a non-binding presidential statement instead of a Resolution. These are adopted by consensus. They are meant to apply political pressure.
UNSC Resolution 1267 Sanctions Committee :
- This committee oversees the implementation of sanctions pursuant to UNSC resolutions 1267, 1989 and 2253.
- It is one of the most important and active UN subsidiary bodies working on efforts to combat terrorism, particularly in relation to Al Qaeda and ISIS (Islamic State group).
- It discusses UN efforts to limit the movement of terrorists, especially those related to travel bans, the freezing of assets and arms embargoes for terrorism.
- Apart from AQ & ISIS, LeT, JuD and JeM are also listed under Resolution 1267.
China holding the listings :
- Since 2001, China has placed holds on a number of listing proposals relating mainly to Pakistan-based groups and their leaders, given the close bilateral ties between the two countries. Most notable was China’s objections to the listing of JeM founder Masood Azhar. Azhar was released from prison by India in 1999 and handed over to terrorists in return for hostages onboard Indian Airlines flight IC-814.
- While the JeM was listed at the UNSC in 2001, and Azhar was mentioned as the group’s founder, he wasn’t designated for several years. Even after the Parliament attack and the Mumbai 26/11 attacks, China kept placing a hold on the UNSC terror listing proposals for him: in 2009, 2010, 2016-18, claiming it had “inadequate information” on Masood Azhar’s terror activities. In May 2019, three months after the Pulwama attacks that were traced to the JeM, China finally withdrew its hold.
- China objects to the listing proposals being brought by a group of countries, especially the joint proposals by India and the U.S. rather than by India alone, but has never given any comprehensive reason for the holds.
Road Ahead for India :
- Since the Mumbai attacks in 2008, India has tried a number of different ways to build international consensus on cross-border terrorism, and the UNSC terror listings have been one such route.
- This is something India has also pursued with the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force (FATF), where Pakistan was placed on a “grey list” due to its inability to curb terror financing and money laundering in the last decade. While Pakistan is likely to be taken off that list this week, it has had to carry out several actions against terror entities on its soil, and will continue to be under scrutiny.
- Finally, India and the U.S. have built their own separate lists of “most wanted” terrorists that document the cases against them, with a view to eventually receiving global cooperation on banning them.
- India should also pursue its earlier goal of building international consensus at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for the adoption of the "Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism” (CCIT).
- CCIT has a universal definition of terrorism that all 193-members of the UNGA will adopt into their own criminal law. It seeks to ban all terror groups and shut down terror camps, prosecute all terrorists under special laws and make cross-border terrorism an extraditable offense worldwide.
1. What is the UNSC?
Answer : The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN).
2. Where is the HQ of UNSC?
Answer : UNSC was founded in 1945 and is headquartered at NewYork.