1. Quit India Movement.
2. Tribes in India and the World Tribal Day.
3. Wetlands in India.
1. Quit India Movement.
India completed 80 years of Quit India Movement also known as August Kranti on 8th August.
About Quit India Movement
- Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement at the session of the All-India Congress Committee in Mumbai on 8th August 1942.
- Gandhiji gave the call “Do or Die” in his speech at the Gowalia Tank Maidan, now popularly known as August Kranti Maidan.
- Aruna Asaf Ali, also known as the ‘Grand Old Lady’ of the Independence Movement, hoisted the Indian flag at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai during the Quit India Movement.
- The slogan ‘Quit India’ was coined by Yusuf Meherally, a socialist and trade unionist who also served as Mayor of Mumbai.
Reasons for Quit India Movement
- Failure of the Cripps Mission.
- Another reason that supported this was that Japan was at the doors of raging a war against India during the Second World War. Without prior consultation with the Indian leaders, the British officials involved India in the war. Gandhi believed that Japan would not have enough reason to invade India if the British left India.
- The rise in the prices of essential goods during World War uplifted bitterness among the Indians.
- Centralisation of many small movements.
Success of the Movement
- Rise of Future Leaders: Underground activities were taken by leaders that included Ram Manohar Lohia, J.P. Narayan,Aruna Asaf Ali, Biju Patnaik, Sucheta Kriplani, etc which later emerged as prominent leaders.
- Role of Women: Female leaders like Usha Mehta helped set up an underground radio station which led to the awakening about the movement.
- Rise of Nationalism: A greater sense of unity and brotherhood emerged due to the Quit India Movement. Many students dropped out of schools and colleges, people gave up their jobs and withdrew money from the banks.
- Paved the way for Independence: While the Quit India campaign ended in 1944, with the British refusing to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war had ended, they came to the important realization that India was ungovernable in the long run due to the cost of World War II. It changed the nature of political negotiations with the British, ultimately paving the way for India’s independence.
Failure of the Movement
- The Muslim League was not in favour of the British leaving India without partitioning the country first.
- The Communist party supported the British since they were allied with the Soviet Union.
- The Hindu Mahasabha boycotted it officially because they feared that the movement would create internal disorder and would endanger internal security during the war.
- Further, the movement was violently suppressed by theBritish – people were shot, lathi-charged, villages burnt and enormous fines imposed.
Significance of Quit India Movement
- The Quit India Movement failed to end British rule in India. Yet, this was one movement that demonstrated the will and reserve of diverse communities of Indians to withstand both the highhandedness of imperial authorities and the elitism of the Indian Political class.
- The Quit India Movement stands apart from the earlier movements in terms of the spirit and enthusiasm that it infused in ordinary people to support indigenous institutions and structures of power.
- The parallel governments that such efforts produced indicate the basic difference between the 1942 movement and the earlier movements
- Loyalty to the government suffered considerable erosion. This also showed how deep nationalism had reached.
- The movement established the truth that it was no longer possible to rule India without the wishes of Indians.
- The great significance was that the movement placed the demand for independence on the immediate agenda of the national movement. After Quit India, there could be no retreat.
2. Tribes in India and the World Tribal Day.
9th August is celebrated as International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples.
Theme of 2022 World Tribal Day : “The Role of Indigenous Women in the Preservation and Transmission of Traditional Knowledge.”
- December 21, 1993: the UNGA had declared December 10,1994 as the start of the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People.
- 1993 : International Year of the World’s Indigenous People.
- December 23, 1994: The UNGA passed resolution 49/214, declaring August 9 as the International Day of the World’s Indigenous People.
Tribes in India
- 2011 census: tribals make up 8.6% of India’s population.
- There are over 700 tribal groups
- In India, out of which around 75 are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
- The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India.
- Largest number of tribal communities (62) are found in Odisha.
- Article 15: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion,race, caste, sex or place of birth only.
- Article 16: Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, Scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.
- Article 335: Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
- Article 338-A: the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes has been set-up.
- 5th and 6th Schedule: Administration and control of Scheduled and Tribal Areas.
- Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 against Untouchability.
- Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention ofAtrocities) Act, 1989: to prevent the commission of offenses of atrocities against the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
- Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996: to provide for the extension of the provisions of Part IX of the Constitution relating to the Panchayats to the Scheduled Areas.
- Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers(Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006: to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land in forest dwelling scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers.
Committees Related to Tribal Communities:
- Xaxa Committee (2013)
- Bhuria Commission (2002-2004)
- Lokur Committee (1965)
3. Wetlands in India
India has added 10 more Ramsar sites, or wetlands that are of international importance, taking the number of such sites to 64. India is aiming at getting a Ramsar tag for 75 of its wetlands on the 75th year of Independence.
Definition of Wetland
Under Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules 2017,the definition of wetland is an area of marsh, fen, peat land or water; whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary,with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters, are considered as wetlands.
Policies on Wetland
Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017
- Notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) under the provisions of the Environment(Protection) Act, 1986
- Regulatory framework for conservation and management of wetlands across the country to conserve, manage and maintain the ecological character of the wetlands without restricting its wise use.
National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems (NPCA):
- Centrally sponsored scheme
- Implemented by Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
- Aim: Conservation and management of identified wetlands (includes lakes) in the country on cost sharing basis between Central Government and respective State Governments.
- The scheme covers various activities such as interception,diversion and treatment of wastewater, shoreline protection,lakefront development, in-situ cleaning i.e., desilting & de-weeding, stormwater management, bioremediation,catchment area treatment, lake beautification, survey & demarcation, bio-fencing, fisheries development, weed control, biodiversity conservation, education and awareness creation, community participation, etc.
Centre for Wetlands Conservation and Management (CWCM)
- It is part of the National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management(NCSCM), Chennai, an institution under the MoEF&CC .
- Established to serve as a knowledge hub and to enable exchange of knowledge between wetland users, managers, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners and to assist the national and State/ UT Governments in the design and implementation of policy and regulatory frameworks,management planning, monitoring and targeted research specifically related to wetlands.
- As a result of above said measures, 64 wetlands/water bodies have been designated as Wetlands of International Importance,Ramsar sites, across the country under Ramsar Convention since 1981, covering a total area of around 1.25 million Ha.
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
- The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an international treaty for “the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands”. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands.
- It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran where it was signed on 2nd of February 1971.
- The 2nd of February each year is World Wetlands Day.
- At the Centre of the Ramsar philosophy is the “wise use” of wetlands.
- Wise use: maintenance of ecological character within the context of sustainable development.
How can a site qualify to be a RAMSAR site?
- If supporting vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities
- If it regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds
- If it is an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks are dependent upon.